Did This Nobel Prize Winner Say COVID-19 Was Created in a Lab?
Medical images exchanged over public networks require a methodology to provide confidentiality for the image, authenticity of the image ownership and source of origin, and image integrity verification.
To provide these three security requirements, we propose in this paper a region-based algorithm based on multiple watermarking in the frequency and spatial domains. Confidentiality and authenticity are provided by embedding robust watermarks in the region-of-non-interest RONI of the image using a blind scheme in the discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition domain DWT-SVD.
On the other hand, integrity is provided by embedding local fragile watermarks in the region-of-interest ROI of the image using a reversible scheme in the spatial domain. The integrity provided by the proposed algorithm is implemented on a block-level of the partitioned-image, thus enabling localized detection of tampered regions. The algorithm was evaluated with respect to imperceptibility, robustness, capacity, and tamper localization capability, using MRI, Ultrasound, and X-ray gray-scale medical images.
Performance results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in providing the required security services for telemedicine applications. The recent innovations in information and communication technologies have boosted the quality of health-care services and introduced new effective medical practices. One such unique practice is telemedicine, which has enabled the exchange of medical images and electronic health records among physicians and hospitals around the world.
Indeed, telemedicine nowadays plays an increasingly important role in modern health-care applications such as telediagnosis, telesurgery, and distant learning [ 1 ]. However, the effectiveness of telemedicine applications requires a secured transmission of medical records since current communication networking technologies make it easy for intruders to intercept and tamper medical images while being exchanged over public networks [ 2 ]. To provide secured exchange of medical images between health-care entities, three requirements must be simultaneously satisfied: confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity [ 3 ].
While confidentiality ensures that only entitled users have access to the transmitted image, integrity verifies that the image has not been modified, and authenticity ensures that the image belongs to the claimed patient and comes from the correct source. Currently, cryptography and digital watermarking are the two major technologies that are used to provide the three security requirements.
Cryptography-based methods use symmetric encryption, hashing, and digital signatures [ 4 — 6 ], while watermarking-based methods use robust and fragile watermarks [ 7 ]. Cryptography is the standard approach of achieving security in information systems; thus, it has been the only approach to provide security for telemedicine applications for many years [ 8 ].
As a matter of fact, cryptography is used in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine DICOM standard which defines a technical framework for application entities involved in the exchange of medical data [ 9 ].
In particular, part 15 and supplement of the standard recommend the use of triple DES and AES symmetric encryption standards and digital signatures to achieve security for the exchanged images [ 10 ]. However, a major limitation of the cryptographic-based DICOM approach is that once the medical image is deciphered, or the digital signature is deleted or lost, the image is no longer protected, and it becomes hard to verify its integrity and authenticity.
Digital watermarking is currently the limestone technology in the field of digital intellectual property and information security [ 11 ]. The focus of this data-hiding technology has been to provide copyright protection for digital multimedia documents consisting of images, audio, and video objects [ 12 ].
Therefore, it is believed that digital watermarking has the potential to provide exchanged medial images with confidentiality protection, origin and ownership authentication, and data integrity [ 13 ]. Finally, watermarking provides the means to verify the integrity of exchanged images using fragile or cryptographic hash watermarks [ 14 ].
Three types of watermarking methods have been proposed for medical image watermarking; irreversible methods, reversible methods, and region-based methods [ 15 ].
Irreversible watermarking methods are not acceptable in the medical field since the distortions caused to the original images by the watermarking process involve non-invertible operations such as bit replacement, truncation, or quantization. Reversible watermarking methods, on the other hand, restore the watermarked images to their original pixel values, thus allowing for accurate medical diagnosis.
However, most reversible watermarking algorithms lack the tamper localization functionality which is a desired property in the integrity verification of medical images. The third type, region-based watermarking methods, involves segmenting the original image into two separate areas; region-of-interest ROI and region-of-non-interest RONI. The two regions have different characteristics; thus, different watermarks can be embedded to achieve different security requirements.
Moreover, the region-based methods posses the tamper localization functionality which provides content-based integrity for exchanged medical images. In this paper, we describe a region-based watermarking algorithm capable of providing confidentiality, and verifying authenticity and integrity, for medical images exchanged in telemedicine applications.
The algorithm uses multiple watermarks to meet these security requirements.Those iconic Bentley features of dominant bonnet line, prominent matrix grille and twin large inner headlamps confirm its pedigree, while the wide track and four-square stance emphasise the performance focus of an all-wheel drive supercar. Its greater number of ratios ensures that the engine is always working at its most efficient gearing.
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Montagnier and his team examined samples taken from Rozenbaum's AIDS patients and found the virus that would later become known as HIV in a lymph node biopsy. They named it "lymphadenopathy-associated virus", or LAV, since it was not then clear that it was the cause of AIDS, and published their findings in the journal Science on 20 May A team led by Robert Gallo of the United States published similar findings in the same issue of Science and later confirmed the discovery of the virus and presented evidence that it caused AIDS.
HIV isolates usually have a high degree of variability because the virus mutates rapidly. The group, led by Sheng-Yung Chang, examined archival specimens and concluded in Nature in that Gallo's virus had come from Montagnier's lab. Chang determined that the French group's LAV was a virus from one patient that had contaminated a culture from another. On request, Montagnier's group had sent a sample of this culture to Gallo, not knowing it contained two viruses.
It then contaminated the pooled culture on which Gallo was working. Before the publication of Chang's results, Gallo's lab was accused and initially found guilty of "minor misconduct" by the Office of Scientific Integrity inand then by the newly created Office of Research Integrity in for the misappropriation of a sample of HIV produced at the Pasteur Institute.Love song glee
Today it is agreed that Montagnier's group first isolated HIV,  but Gallo's group is credited with discovering that the virus causes AIDS and with generating much of the science that made the discovery possible, including a technique previously developed by Gallo's lab for growing T cells in the laboratory. The question of whether the true discoverers of the virus were French or American was more than a matter of prestige. Inboth governments attempted to end the dispute by arranging to split the prestige of the discovery and the proceeds from the patent 50—50,  naming Montagnier and Gallo co-discoverers.
This compromise allowed Montagnier and Gallo to end their feud and collaborate with each other again, writing a chronology that appeared in Nature that year. On 29 November issue of ScienceGallo and Montagnier published a series of articles, one of which was co-written by both scientists, in which they acknowledged the pivotal roles that each had played in the discovery of HIV.
I'm very sorry for Robert Gallo. Montagnier was awarded the honorary Doctor of Humane Letters L. They were published in a new journal of which he is chairman of the editorial board,  allegedly  detecting electromagnetic signals from bacterial DNA M. On 28 JuneMontagnier spoke at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting in Germany,  "where 60 Nobel prize winners had gathered, along with other scientists, to discuss the latest breakthroughs in medicine, chemistry and physics.
Although fellow Nobel prize winners — who view homeopathy as quackery — were left openly shaking their heads, Montagnier's comments were rapidly embraced by homeopaths eager for greater credibility.
Cristal Sumner, of the British Homeopathic Associationsaid Montagnier's work gave homeopathy 'a true scientific ethos'. When asked by Canada's CBC Marketplace program if his work was indeed a theoretical basis for homeopathy as homeopaths had claimed, Montagnier replied that one "cannot extrapolate it to the products used in homeopathy".
The paper has met with harsh criticism for not being peer-reviewed, and its claims unsubstantiated by modern mainstream conventions of physics and chemistry. No third party has replicated the findings as of March In response to Montagnier's statement that the generally unfavorable response is due to the "non-understanding or misunderstanding of the breakthrough findings", blogger Andy Lewis has written that he has found it difficult to assert what the paper "actually claims" and that "The paper [ Because the research used high dilutions, homeopaths claimed it supported homeopathy, even though it didn't mention homeopathy:.
In the interview he stated that Jacques Benvenistewhose controversial homeopathic work had been discredited, was "a modern Galileo ". When asked if he wasn't "worried that your colleagues will think you have drifted into pseudo-science?Oceanside, CA. Nat Montanger lives in Oceanside, CA.
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